According to the SMH, two distinct pathways reactivate somatic marker responses. In the first pathway, emotion can be evoked by the changes in the body that are projected to the brain—called the "body loop". For instance, encountering a feared object like a snake may initiate the fight-or-flight response and cause fear. In the second pathway, cognitive representations of the emotions can be activated in the brain without being directly elicited by a physiological response—called the "as-if body loop". For instance, imagining an encounter with a snake would initiate a similar flight-or-fight response "as-if" you were in that particular situation (albeit perhaps a much weaker one). In other words, the brain can anticipate expected bodily changes, which allows the individual to respond faster to external stimuli without waiting for an event to actually occur.
The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) proposes a mechanism by which processes can guide (or bias) , particularly decision-making. This hypothesis has been formulated by .
This is an outline of Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, so …
The impact of this problem in terms of lost productivity, disease and reduced quality of life is undoubtedly formidable, although difficult to estimate reliably. However, recent analyses of data from over 28,000 workers by the Saint Paul Fire and Marine Insurance company are of interest and relevance. This study found that time pressure and other emotional and personal problems at work were more strongly associated with reported health problems than any other personal life stressor; more so than even financial or family problems, or death of a loved one (St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company 1992).
TraderFeed: The Role of Somatic Markers in Trading …
The and VMPFC are essential components of this hypothesized mechanism and therefore damage to either structure will disrupt their proposed action in mediating the development and action of somatic markers. A major source of supporting evidence for this theory is provided by experiments using the .
known as the somatic marker hypothesis, ..
In economic theory, there is a tendency to model human decision-making as being devoid of emotions, involving only logical reasoning based on cost-benefit calculations. Such theories assume that individuals have the time, knowledge and information processing power to make optimal decisions. In contrast to this idealization, the somatic marker hypothesis proposes that emotions play a critical role in the ability to make fast, rational decisions in complex and uncertain situations.
the power of somatic markers ..
We describe the “somatic marker hypothesis” proposed by Damasio (1996) to account for the ability of most people to make decisions quickly and continually in the course of their lives. We relate this hypothesis to two other theoretical constructs, emotional orientations and purposes, which we have used in our research on students' reasoning and teachers' decision making. Given that somatic markers are a part of unconscious mental activity, they cannot be observed by introspective reflection. How then can we research something we cannot see? Beginning with the hypothesis that somatic markers influence actions, we observe, particularly, the actions of student teachers, teachers and children in mathematics classrooms at points where they make decisions. This process is illustrated through examples both of teaching and learning in mathematics, and through the account (see Op't Eynde and Hannula, this issue) of ‘Frank’ reflecting on his decision-making in mathematical activity. We use the case of Frank to illustrate some differences between viewing mathematical activity from our perspective and from those of some other contributors to this special issue. The connections between emotional orientations, somatic markers and purposes are further illustrated by two examples drawn from our research into teacher development and students' reasoning processes.
Somatic markers hypothesis : Wikis (The Full Wiki)
When making decisions, these physiological signals (or 'somatic markers') and their evoked emotion are consciously or unconsciously associated with their past outcomes and bias decision-making towards certain behaviors while avoiding others. For instance, when a somatic marker associated with a positive outcome is perceived, the person may feel happy and thereby motivated to pursue that behavior. When a somatic marker associated with the negative outcome is perceived, the person may feel sad, which feeling acts as an internal alarm to warn the individual to avoid a course of action. These situation-specific somatic states based on, and reinforced by, past experiences help to guide behavior in favor of more advantageous choices and therefore are adaptive.