Our synthesis began with the preparation of 6 (>99% ) from 5 in 5 steps in 21.8% overall yield, as reported previously (). The diastereoselective reduction of the ketone group in 6, followed by the chemoselective methylation of the resulting alcohol, afforded 8 in 75% yield (1.0 g scale). The structure of 8 was unambiguously confirmed using X-ray crystallography. After extensive experimentation, we found that the regioselective Wacker oxidation of the substituted olefin using air as a co-oxidant gave ketone 9 in good yield. We reasoned that the methoxy group at C10 in 8 was critical for this regioselective outcome. Finally, the double elimination of the oxa-bridge in 9 proceeded smoothly using a slightly modified version of Cha’s procedure in the presence of TMSOTf and Me2EtN in DCM to complete our total synthesis of (−)-1 in 81% yield in >99% . The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of synthetic 1, as well as its optical rotation, were identical to those of the natural product.
The course introduces CAD, design methodology, architectures, circuit and fabrication techniques for integrated circuits. The main emphasis is on CMOS design. Content covers: ICD Overview & IC Fabrication, MOS Transistor Principles and CMOS Gates. Device Performance and Yield. Programmable Architecture, Layout Languages & Design Rules. Hardware Description Languages, specifically VHDL - although prior VHDL knowledge is beneficial. The VHDL content covers: - Sequential / Combinational Logic - State Machines and Clocking - Simulation, Synthesis, Place & Route, Back Annotation The module also examines Testing mechanisms. Finally, some State-of-the-Art developments are introduced.
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Prerequisites:EITHER General Microbiology (SBS758) OR Basic Biochemistry (SBS017) plus one Chemistry Year 1 option. Diversity of microbial metabolisms. Bacterial growth and replication, including organization and division of the chromosome, yield and responses to temperature and nutrient availability. Photolithotrophy, photoorganotrophy, chemilithotrophy and chemoorganotrophy. Fermentation and anaerobic respiration. Growth and extension metabolism of fungi. Nitrogen transformations by microorganisms in free-living and mutualistic settings. Microbiological standards in public health. Clean water processing and waste-water treatment. Practical work will cover prokaryote photosynthesis, bacterial fermentation, fungal digestion of wood and nitrogen transformations in sediments, and microbiological water quality. There will be a brief consideration of clean water processing and waste-water treatment.