The other critical innovation was the modern steam engine, which was intimately related to coal. Burgeoning coal mines quickly exhausted deposits above the water table and began digging deeply into the earth, and water in the mines became a great problem. Not only were floods killing miners, but standing water made mines inoperable. Romans pumped water from their mines (). So did British mining operations, and around 1710, combined the ideas of a and an to make the , to pump water from coal mines. In a parallel case of using coal for smelting, the coal-fired Newcomen engine was . It was the first of its kind, primitive compared to later engines, and its spread was gradual. . He eventually invented an improved version with a that was . The steam engine that powered the Industrial Revolution was thus born, although, as with coal, its spread was gradual, and wind and water power were competitive with coal for nearly a century. The hydrocarbon-fueled steam engine was the key to the Industrial Revolution, in which the energy of ancient sunlight was exploited to generate previously unimaginable power. A steam locomotive of 1850 roaring through the English countryside would have been inconceivable to an English peasant of 1500. From a to to to less than five hundred years, the duration of each Epochal Event continued to shrink as levels of energy use increased dramatically and with each event.
The next level of awareness might be the most common among people progressing beyond denial of FE’s possibility or existence. They and that there is no point in even trying. They are often those building bunkers to survive the coming collapse of global civilization. I have respect for that position, but it certainly will not help solve humanity’s problems or help the manifest. Nobody that I respected in the FE field ever felt hopeless. We all began our journeys naïvely, but never conceded defeat. When the , the miracle happened, so admitting defeat before even beginning does not seem productive or even realistic, and can lead to dysfunctional coping behaviors and even suicidal tendencies.
Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis
Scientific practice is ideally a process of theory and experimentation that can lead to new theories. There are three general aspects of today's scientific process, and it , which used to formulate his theory of evolution. First, facts are adduced. Facts are phenomena that everybody can agree on, ideally produced under controlled experimental conditions that can be reproduced by other experimenters. Hypotheses are then proposed to account for the facts by using inductive (also called ) logic. The hypotheses are usually concerned with how the universe works, whether it is star formation or evolution. If a hypothesis survives the fact-gathering process – often by predicting facts that later experiments verify – then the hypothesis may graduate to the status of a theory. Scientific theories ideally can be , which means that they can be proven erroneous. The principle of hypothesis and falsification is primarily what distinguishes science from other modes of inquiry.
The second law of thermodynamics - how energy flows …
Wegener concluded, , that there in the and periods. He . Nearly 50 years later, in 1964, the same year that the , proposed, based on evidence, that a , when even the tropics were buried under ice. That was the first time that a truly global glaciation was proposed, and Harland’s idea developed into what is today called the .
This tutorial introduces cell structure
Around when Harland first proposed a global ice age, a climate model developed by Russian climatologist concluded that if a Snowball Earth really happened, the runaway positive feedbacks would ensure that the planet would never thaw and become a permanent block of ice. For the next generation, that climate model made a Snowball Earth scenario seem impossible. In 1992, a professor, , that coined the term Snowball Earth. Kirschvink sketched a scenario in which the supercontinent near the equator reflected sunlight, as compared to tropical oceans that absorb it. Once the global temperature decline due to reflected sunlight began to grow polar ice, the ice would reflect even more sunlight and Earth’s surface would become even cooler. This could produce a runaway effect in which the ice sheets grew into the tropics and buried the supercontinent in ice. Kirschvink also proposed that the situation could become unstable. As the sea ice crept toward the equator, it would kill off all photosynthetic life and a buried supercontinent would no longer engage in . Those were two key ways that carbon was removed from the atmosphere in the day's , especially before the rise of land plants. Volcanism would have been the main way that carbon dioxide was introduced to the atmosphere (animal respiration also releases carbon dioxide, but this was before the eon of animals), and with two key dynamics for removing it suppressed by the ice, carbon dioxide would have increased in the atmosphere. The resultant greenhouse effect would have eventually melted the ice and runaway effects would have quickly turned Earth from an icehouse into a greenhouse. Kirschvink proposed the idea that Earth could vacillate between states.