Phonological awareness (the ability to break words into their components, synthesize their sounds and learn their features), rapid naming and to some extent verbal working memory are sources of individual differences that are associated with reading development and reading difficulties in monolingual children. These processing skills measured in monolingual and second-language children often correlate with each other, and can predict decoding and spelling skills in both languages. This has been found across different language groups. As well, regardless of the type of orthographies (regularity of correspondence between letters or letter combinations and their associated sounds) involved, second-language learners who have decoding and spelling problems in their first language have difficulties in their second language as well. Finally, second-language learners who have serious problems with word-based reading skills and with the cognitive processes that are necessary to develop good word-based skills in the second language also have poor reading fluency, reading comprehension and writing skills.
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are serine–threonine kinases that mediate intracellular signaling. JNK is a major cellular stress response protein induced by oxidative stress and its activation is believed to be an early event in AD (). Among the MAPKs, JNK is one of the essential mediators of microglial proinflammatory functions (), it is a component of signaling pathways that lead to inflammation, and it can control the synthesis and release of proinflammatory molecules by LPS-activated microglia (). Moreover, the JNK-AP1 signaling pathway mediates the increased expression of inflammatory genes induced by Aβ peptides in human brain endothelial cells and in AD brain (). Thus JNK is an attractive target for AD prevention/therapy. In one study, treatment of LPS-activated primary rat microglia with conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) resulted in reduced production of inflammatory cytokines by suppressing the phosphorylation of JNK and thus inhibiting JNK signaling (). Therefore, CDNF use seems promising. Another recent study showed that administration of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 resulted in cognitive deficit improvement in a transgenic AD mouse model by reducing Aβ production, inflammatory responses and synaptic loss (). Interestingly, administration of the small molecule LX2343 improved cognitive deficits in a transgenic AD mouse model by inhibiting both JNK and BACE-1 activity, reducing Aβ production and promoting autophagy (), though no direct anti-inflammatory mechanisms were investigated.
Cognitive and Biological Therapies: A Synthesis - Healio
Benjamin Bloom (1956) developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior in learning. This taxonomy contained three overlapping domains: the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. Within the cognitive domain, he identified six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. These domains and levels are still useful today as you develop the critical thinking skills of your students.