Ozone, an allotropic form of oxygen, possesses unique properties which are being defined and applied to biological systems as well as to clinical practice. As a molecule containing a large excess of energy, through incompletely understood mechanisms, it manifests bactericidal, virucidal and fungicidal action which may make it a treatment of choice in certain conditions and an adjunct to treatment in others. Although ozone's medicinal effects were discovered in the 19th century and clinically applied during World War I, equipment capable of purity and reliability of delivery of oxygen-ozone mixtures were not available until the late 1950s. Since then, experience has accumulated for the administration of ozone to humans and animals via a variety of routes, in doses that are both nontoxic and relevant to clinical problems, externally in gaseous form (or in solution) and systemically in blood ozonation.
Whereas it can be readily understood that external ozone applications produce local effects such as disinfection, wound healing or local circulatory enhancement, the technique of introducing ozone into the circulation poses more complex theoretical issues. In the technique of major autohemotherapy, 50 to 100 ml of blood is drawn from the patient, mixed with a dose of ozone-oxygen of a predetermined concentration, then returned via the same intravenous catheter (butterfly). Returned to the patient, the ozonated blood is rapidly distributed to all tissues.
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Ozone is approximately 10 times more soluble in water than oxygen. Mixed into aqua bidestillata (pyrogen free) water, the half life of ozone is nine to ten hours (at pH 7 and 20C); and at 0C, it is doubled. Ozonated water finds applications in dental surgery where it is reported to promote hemostasis, enhance local oxygen supply and inhibit bacterial proliferation. Applied following tooth extraction or during dental surgery, it may also be rinsed in conditions such as thrush and periodontal disease, swallowed in cases of gastritis or gastric carcinoma, or irrigated in chronic intestinal or bladder inflammation.
Cyclohexyl bromide; Molecular Formula: C 6 H 11 Br
Robert J. Klein, Daniel A. Fischer, Joseph L. Lenhart. “Systematic Oxidation of Polystyrene by Ultraviolet-Ozone, Characterized by Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure and Contact Angle.” Langmuir 24 (15). American Chemical Society (2008) 8187.
Molecular Weight: 163.057 g/mol
Most research on ozone's biological effects have concentrated on pulmonary responses with emphasis on its toxicity. Interest has been keen on ozone's role in ground level atmospheric pollution. Produced as a result of interactions between industrial gases, oxygen and ultraviolet rays, there is evidence of synergistic action on pulmonary compromise. The effects of pure ozone, however, need to be differentiated from those of smog.
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According to other researchers,[20,24,43] the direct intravascular injection of pure oxygen-ozone mixtures results in the following responses: (1) an activation of enzymes involved in peroxide or erythrocytes, an outgrowth of which is (2) stimulation of the [2,3] Bisphosphoglycerate cycle, shifting the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve to the right thus releasing oxygen to the tissues. Further physiological effects include (3) an enhanced oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with the formation of Acetyl-CoA, and consequent citric acid cycle activation, (4) a direct influence on the mitochondrial transport system with reduction of NADH and oxidation of cytochromes, and (5) an increase in RBC pliability, blood fluidity, and arterial PO2.