Mention other chemical reactions that injure cells.

atrophy of thyroid (left; right side is normal thyroid at much lower magnification) "Aging" is cited by "Big Robbins", though I am not impressed that geriatric cases have appreciably smaller cells when all other things are equal.

I am active in ,which provides free medical guidance from your cell phone.

By convention today, unless otherwise specified, this implies a very abnormal epitheliumwith "loss of uniformity of the individual cells, as well as a lossof their architectural orientation".


Tell how you know a cell is dead.

Briefly review the mechanisms of apoptosis from your previous work in cell biology.

Apoptosis is enactment of a program for single-cell death, often on the instructions of a developmental program or T-killer cell, or in the setting of otherwise-sublethal cell injury, i.e., the body is removing unwanted cells.


Different cells react differently to starvation conditions.

1. Uphoff CC et al., 2012. Treatment of mycoplasma contamination in cell cultures with Plasmocin. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012:267678.
2. Rongvaux A et al., 2014. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model. Nat Biotechnol. 32(4):364-72.
3. Baronti C. et al., 2013. Mycoplasma removal: simple curative methods for viral supernatants. J Virol Methods. 187(2):234-7
4. Deng F. et al. 2012. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts. Mol Vis. 18:2871-81
5. Romorini L. et al, 2013. Effect of antibiotics against Mycoplasma sp. on human embryonic stem cells undifferentiated status, pluripotency, cell viability and growth. PLoS One. 8(7):e70267

Other cells simply waste away and die.

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INFECTIOUS AGENTS injure cells in a variety of ways.

Cancer: Causes and Effects Immune Injury Autoimmunity Other Immune HIV infections The Anti-Immunization ActivistsInfancy and Childhood Aging Infections Nutrition Environmental Lung Disease Violence, Accidents, Poisoning Heart Vessels Respiratory Red Cells White Cells Coagulation Oral Cavity GI Tract Liver Pancreas (including Diabetes) Kidney Bladder Men Women Breast Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal and Thymus Bones Joints Muscles Skin Nervous System Eye Ear AutopsyLab Profiling Blood Component Therapy Serum Proteins Renal Function Tests Adrenal Testing Arthritis Labs Glucose Testing Liver Testing Porphyria Urinalysis Spinal Fluid Lab Problem Quackery AlternativeMedicine (current)Preventing "F"'s: For Teachers!

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Explain how pathology integrates the study of disease at:the molecular level the cellular level the level of organs and systemsthe whole person and all of society.