The Calvin cycle or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle is a series of biochemical reactions that take place in the stroma of chloroplasts in photosynthetic organisms. It was discovered by Melvin Calvin, James Bassham and Andrew Benson at the University of California, Berkeley by using the radioactive element, carbon-14. It is one of the light-independent (dark) reactions, used for carbon fixation.
All the low-integrity activities in the FE field aside, it has been in a state of arrested development for longer than I have been alive. When the , what made us dangerous was not so much the technology we were working on; we were building a network of businesses that could manufacture and distribute disruptive energy technologies, and lived right down the road from us. If we became too prominent to easily snuff out, plenty of people like Sparky could have come forward. That was the primary threat that we presented, led by and unparalleled courage.
Another variant of photosynthesis, cam, ..
England had nearly a century’s head start on the competition with its Industrial Revolution, which is why it became the world’s triumphant imperial power, to be later supplanted by its offspring and rival, the USA. Turning coal into an industrial fuel, for smelting iron and powering machines, initiated the Industrial Revolution, and the next big innovation was making machines to replace hands. English inventors , and the 1760s and 1770s were the golden age of spinning innovation, and the , , and were all invented. By the 1790s, people using such machines . I call one worker with a machine outperforming 150 people without one an energy-and-technology-leveraged human. Energy-powered technology allowed a person to vastly outperform humans without it. Was that person 150 times more dexterous? Smarter? Faster? Stronger? The machine did the work, not the person, and energy made it all happen, not the equipment. Without energy to run it, machinery is useless, but without human-made technology, the energy was unavailable. Such machines would never have been without the available energy to run them. Those early spinning machines ran on water power from the .
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In general, the large-sized fauna guilds that have dominated the past 40 million years were well represented on all continents. thrived in all inhabitable continents and biomes that they could migrate to. In North America, mammals whose size would astound (and terrify) modern observers included the (about the largest ever), a , the , , the , and the . They only large because of today’s stunted remnant populations. With the exception of the bison, they all lived for millions of years, through numerous ice age events, all to go extinct just after humans arrived, along with many other species, such as the . The other continents had similar giants. Australia had a and the . Southeast Asia had the , which dwarfed today’s gorillas. With only Africa and parts of Eurasia as partial exceptions, virtually large fauna went extinct, worldwide, soon after human arrival, and how humans came to be is the subject of a coming chapter.
Photorespiration is a wasteful pathway that occurs when the Calvin ..
The (c. 5.3 to 2.6 mya) began warmer than , but was the prelude to today’s ice age, as temperatures steadily declined. An epoch of less than three million years reflects human interest in the recent past. Geologically and climatically, there was little noteworthy about the Pliocene (although the was created then), although two related events made for one of the most interesting evolutionary events yet studied. South America kept moving northward, and the currents that once in the Tethyan heyday were finally closed. The gap between North America and South America began to close about 3.5 mya, and by 2.7 mya the current land bridge had developed. Around three mya, the began, when fauna from each continent could raft or swim to the other side. South America had been isolated for 60 million years and only received the stray migrant, such as rodents and New World monkeys. North America, however, received repeated invasions from Asia and had exchanges with Europe and Greenland. North America also had much more diverse biomes than South America's, even though it had nothing like the Amazon rainforest. The ending of South America’s isolation provided the closest thing to a controlled experiment that paleobiologists would ever have. South America's fauna was devastated, far worse than European and African fauna were when Asia finally connected with them. More than 80% of all South American mammalian families and genera existing before the Oligocene were extinct by the Pleistocene. Proboscideans continued their spectacular success after leaving Africa, and species inhabited the warm, moist Amazonian biome, as well as the Andean mountainous terrain and pampas. The also invaded and thrived as a mixed feeder, grazing or browsing as conditions permitted. In came cats, dogs, camels (which became the ), horses, pigs, rabbits, raccoons, squirrels, deer, bears, tapirs, and others. They displaced virtually all species inhabiting the same niches on the South American side. All large South American predators were driven to extinction, as well as almost all browsers and grazers of the grasslands. The South American animals that migrated northward and survived in North America were almost always those that inhabited niches that no North American animal did, such as monkeys, (which survived because of their claws), and their small cousins (which survived because of their armor), , and (which survived because of their quills). The opossum was nearly eradicated by North American competition but survived and is the only marsupial that made it to North America and exists today. One large-hoofed herbivore survived: the . The (it weighed one metric ton!) survived for a million years after the interchange. , that , also survived and migrated to North America and lasted about a million years before dying out. In general, North American mammals were , which resulted from evolutionary pressures that South America had less of, in its isolation. They were able to outrun and outthink their South American competitors. South American animals made it past South America, but none of them drove any northern indigenous species of note to extinction.