Photosynthesis Part 5: C4 and CAM - YouTube

Mallman J, Heckmann D, Bräutigam A, et al. (2014) The role of photorespiration during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria. eLife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.02478.

Sage RF (2003) The evolution of C4 photosynthesis. New Phytologist 161: 341–370.

Sugarcane is a champion at photosynthesis under the right conditions and is a prime example of a C4 plant, one which uses C4 photosynthesis. Sugarcane has been recorded at 7% .


Photosynthesis - C4 Pathway - Part 1 - Duration: 10:42

Hibberd JM and Covshoff S (2010) The regulation of gene expression required for C4 photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Biology 61: 181–207.

These pathways of carbon fixation, know as the C4 and the CAM pathways, take place in the cytoplasm of the cell.


Photosynthesis: Pathway of Carbon Fixation

Jones MB (2011) C4 species as energy crops. In: Raghavendra AS and Sage RF (eds) C4 Photosynthesis and Related CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol. 32, pp. 379–397. Dordrecht: Springer.

Hibberd Lab | C4 Photosynthesis

Kani R and Edwards GE (1999) The biochemistry of C4 photosynthesis. In: Sage RF and Monson RK (eds) C4 Plant Biology, pp. 49–87. San Diego: Academic Press.

Types of Photosynthesis: C3, C4 and CAM

Heckmann D, Schulze S, Denton A, et al. (2013) Predicting C4 photosynthesis evolution: modular, individually adaptive steps on a Mount Fuji fitness landscape. Cell 153: 1579–1588.

Kranz Anatomy and the C4 Pathway - eLS: Essential for …

Hatch MD (2005) C4 photosynthesis: discovery and resolution. In: Govindjee J, Beatty T, Gest H and Allen JF (eds) Discoveries in Photosynthesis. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol. 20, pp. 875–880. Dordrecht: Springer.

C3, C4 Photosynthesis, and CAM - University of Idaho

Maai E, Miyake H and Taniguchi M (2011) Differential positioning of chloroplasts in C4 mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. Plant Signaling & Behavior 6: 1111–1113.

C3 and C4 Pathway (dark Reaction) Explained with …

Hatch MD (1987) C4 photosynthesis: a unique blend of modified biochemistry, anatomy and ultrastructure. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 895: 81–106.