Then the null hypothesis of no Granger causality is not rejected ..

On the other hand, the probabilities of the null hypothesis stated as is not statistically significant as p-values are (0.7468, 0.5152 and 0.3621) greater than the common (alpha) value (0.05) at ta 5 % significance level of all sampled countries, which fails to reject the null hypothesis.

Null and alternative hypothesis defines about the result of the unit root investigation.

The empirical results show that there is no causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth in Ghana and Nigeria, while a bidirectional causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth confirms it in Kenya.


Directional Alternative Hypothesis.

Bidirectional (or feedback) causality from SP to GDP and GDP to SP as well.

If their magnetic receptors provide information about the inclination (the light-based receptor), strength, and direction of magnetic fields, how might birds use that information to generate grid-based navigational maps? A grid-based navigational map requires that birds determine both their latitudinal and longitudinal position. Latitude can be determined using the inclination and, perhaps, the strength of the magnetic field. In some locations, lines of equal inclination and lines of equal strength are nearly parallel and oriented in an east-west direction, potentially allowing birds to determine latitude using either (or both) cue(s). However, in other locations, lines of equal inclination and lines of equal strength are not parallel and lines of equal strength are not oriented in an east-west direction. In such areas, the two sources of magnetic information might provide birds with information about both their latitude and longitude or, in other words, a bi-coordinate magnetic map.


about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, ..


A Sharp-tailed Sandpiper in an orientation cage (i.e., an "Emlen funnel"). The bottom of the cage is lined with Tipp-ex paper,
with the bird leaving scratchmarks when trying to fly off. These marks indicate the direction the bird is trying to fly.

Bi-Directional Activation Between Human Airway …

In a series of classic experiments, Emlen (1967a, b, 1969, 1970) showed that Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea) use the stars for orientation during migration. By manipulating the location and movements of stars and constellations in a planetarium, Emlen (1967b) found that buntings derived directional information from the pattern of constellations relative to each other and to the celestial pole. Specifically, young buntings learned the location of ‘north’ by observing the rotation of constellations around the celestial pole. In these planetarium experiments, Emlen (1966) determined the direction that buntings were attempting to fly, or their orientation, using funnels with ink pads at the bottom and lined with blotting paper (Emlen funnels; Fig. 6). Each time a bunting hopped upward (and exhibiting nocturnal restlessness, or zugunruhe, they did so frequently), ink on the feet and plumage was left on the blotting paper, leaving a record of the direction the bunting was attempting to travel (Fig. 6).

bi-directional causality or no ..

The use of the sun for orientation by birds was first demonstrated by Kramer (1950). He used a test apparatus where mirrors altered the apparent position of the sun and found that European Starlings altered their directional preference accordingly. The avian sun compass is based on the sun’s azimuth (the point on the horizon directly below the sun), with the sun’s altitude being irrelevant. Because the sun moves across the sky during the day, the use of a sun compass requires an internal clock because it is the sun’s azimuth at a particular time of day that provides directional information.