All plant tissues that accumulate high levels of carotenoids have mechanisms for carotenoid sequestration, including crystallisation, oil deposition, membrane proliferation or protein-lipid sequestration. It has been shown that lipid accumulation can be a driver of carotenoid formation by acting as a lipophilic sink (Rabbani et al., 1998). The non-carotenogenic starchy rice endosperm, on the other hand, is very low in lipid and apparently lacks any such means for carotenoid deposition. It was also doubtful whether would have the necessary precursors for carotene biosynthesis present and available in the grains, with many believing that the whole, multi-step carotenoid biosynthetic pathway was completely absent from the endosperm.
Measurement of the of these pigments as a function of photosynthetic output makes it clear that the are the most important, but that beta carotene contributes.
Biosynthesis of beta-carotene and ..
technology is based on the simple principle that rice plants possess the whole machinery to synthesise β-carotene, and while this machinery is fully active in leaves, parts of it are turned off in the grain. By adding only two genes, a plant phytoene synthase (psy) and a bacterial phytoene desaturase (crt I), the pathway is turned back on and β-carotene consequently accumulates in the grain.
Carotenes are found in plants in two primary forms ..
The primary sequence of CRTI is unrelated to the plant-type desaturases. Its structure has been partially resolved and the reaction mechanism investigated (Schaub et al., 2012). Clearly, CRTI is simpler than plant-type desaturases. CRTI employs molecular oxygen directly as an electron acceptor, while the plant enzyme utilizes plastoquinone for this purpose, and is thus linked to and dependent on complex redox-chains (Beyer et al., 1989; Mayer et al., 1990; Nievelstein et al., 1995). This electron path is also indirectly linked to molecular oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor via an oxidase identified through the immutans mutation of Arabidopsis (for review, see Kuntz, 2004). This redox pathway is especially important in non-green carotenoid-bearing tissues, while the photosynthetic electron transport is thought to play an analogous role in chloroplasts. Moreover, CRTI does not form poly-cis-configured intermediates, as plant desaturases do (Bartley et al., 1999), and therefore, cis-trans isomerases (cf Fig. 2) are not required. CRTI is also capable of introducing all four double bonds in one step.
Lycopene Supplements vs. Prostate Cancer | …
Most of the people suffering from diabetes were unaware of the disease, when they recognized the disorder it becomes more complicated. The food which is ingested is converted to glucose for the cell function. Glucose needs assistance from insulin in order to penetrate the cell walls as it can’t enter alone. Insulin therefore acts as a regulator of glucose metabolism in the body. If insulin is lacking or it becomes insensitive it will lead to diabetes. Untreated diabetes will lead to complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular problems etc. Moringa leaves have 4 times more Beta-Carotene than that of carrots, 17 times more calcium than that of milk and 25 times more iron than that of Spinach. Moringa Leaves and pods contain 90+ nutrients and 46 antioxidants. Moringa leaves have more antioxidants than the green leaves.