Benzene in petrol has not been incorporateda Production of: USA Japan Western Netherlands Europe Ethylbenzene/styrene 51.1 50.4 48.6 73 Cumene/phenol 20.6 12.1 19.3 16 Cyclohexane 13.8 25.6 13.4 11 Alkylates 3.0 3.7 5.2 - Maleic acid anhydride 2.8 2.5 3.3 - Nitrobenzene/aniline 5.3 - 6.7 - Chlorinated benzenes 2.6 5.7 2.0 - Other products 0.8 - 1.5 - a From: RIVM (1988).
To find an alternative to conventional ZnO, which in higher dosage is toxic to aquatic systems, Thomas  synthesized the novel accelerators -benzylimine aminothioformamide(BIAT)-capped-stearic acid-coated nano-ZnO (ZOBS), BIAT-capped ZnO (ZOB), and stearic acid-coated nano zinc phosphate (ZPS), to investigate their effects in NR vulcanization. They studied the effect of these capped compounds on the curing and mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates. The zinc oxide used in the research was prepared by a sol-gel method, and was then modified using accelerators such as BIAT and fatty acids such as stearic acid. This capping technique reduces agglomeration of nanoparticles of ZnO and is an effective method to improve the curing and physicochemical properties of NR. By capping ZnO with BIAT and stearic acid, it becomes possible to save the extra time and energy required for these particles to diffuse onto the surface of ZnO via the viscoelastic rubber matrix. This provides a further improvement in acceleration of vulcanization and improvement in the physicomechanical properties of the resulting vulcanizates. The mixture containing optimum concentration of BIAT-capped-stearic acid-coated zinc oxide (ZOBS) has superior curing and physicomechanical properties compared with other homologues and the reference mixture containing uncapped ZnO. The increased crosslink density caused by the ZPS particles could increase the stiffness of vulcanizates containing ZPS. The capping technique could improve the scorch safety of rubber compounds by the delayed release of BIAT from the capped ZnO into the rubber matrix for interaction with CBS (conventional accelerator).
Synthesis description for preparation of ANILINE
This page looks in outline at the preparation of phenylamine (also known as aniline or aminobenzene) starting from benzene. The benzene is first converted to nitrobenzene which is in turn reduced to phenylamine.