Gastroenterology, 60(1): 33-42.

This live rock should likely also have some “food” for the nitrifying bacteria as well as healthy colonies of Nitrosococcus, Nitrospira, & Nitrococcus nitrifying bacteria in the outer areas where oxygenated water circulation can reach these bacteria. It is important to keep good circulation around your live rock with a power head or propeller pump once introduced into your new aquarium.



I would point out that live sand does not add nitrifying bacteria in significant amounts to help jump start your nitrogen cycle nearly as well as live rock due to the fact of oxygen depth penetration. Also it should be noted that these high priced bags of live sand commonly sold primarily contain Heterotrophic Bacteria which are NOT the primary bacteria of nitrification. True nitrifying Autotrophic Bacteria will NOT live long (or go uselessly dormant) in a sealed bag so the best you will get out of these pre-packaged live sand bags is some de-nitrifying anaerobic bacteria which in my opinion is not worth the price and one is better off just buying dry #00 oolite sand for much less.
This is not to advocate against a deep sand bed, far from it, but only to state that the primary objective for this is for anaerobic bacteria which results in Nitrate control (not ammonia/nitrites).

Ammonia is assimilated by aquatic algae and macrophytes for use as a nitrogen source.

Burkhalter & Kaya (1977) tested ammonia at concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 0.45 mg/litre on fertilized eggs and the resultant sac fry of rainbow trout.


Ammonia - Essential Chemical Industry

(1960) reported the critical level for chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, to be between 0.04 and 0.11 mg NH3/litre and for coho salmon to be 0.134 mg NH3/litre.


Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle | Cycling Methods | Ammonia & …

Oral exposure (a) Non-protein nitrogen additives Urea and various ammonium salts have been used for several years as non-protein nitrogen sources in ruminant nutrition.

Haber Process for Ammonia Production Chemistry Tutorial

In wells drilled for research purposes and not supplying drinking-water, levels of ammonia-nitrogen in shallow (3 m) wells beneath wood and crop land usually averaged less than 2 mg/litre (Gilliam et al., 1974).

Ammonia (EHC 54, 1986) - INCHEM

High levels of ammonia and high pH, which may occur, for example, in waste waters or fertilized fields, may inhibit nitrification and cause persistance or accumulation of ammonia and/or nitrite.

Haber Process for Ammonia Production Chemistry …

However, nitrogen fertilizers, livestock wastes, or septic tanks may contribute significant amounts of ammonia to shallow ground waters, especially those underlying poorly-drained soils (Gilliam et al., 1974; Rajagopal, 1978).

Ammonia in Groundwater, Runoff, and Streams

(1975) Los Angeles, 1969-70 2.8 - 3.4 Gordon & Bryan (1973) California 15 urban sites in - average 5.3 Hidy (1974) California Riverside, 1975 up to 30.1 Grosjean et al.

Ammonia (EHC 54, 1986) - IPCS INCHEM

Analysis of data from the Water Quality Control Information (STORET) System for the years 1972 - 77 (US EPA, 1979a) showed that, although total ammonia-nitrogen concentrations in surface waters in the USA tended to be slightly lower during summer months than during winter months, the percentage of areas in which non-ionized ammonia concentrations occasionally exceeded 0.02 mg/litre increased from 11% during winter to 23% during summer; these percentages were higher when waters had elevated pH values.