Attitudinal factors which vary among individuals arid within individuals, determine the success or otherwise of the language learner in acquiring a language. The differences in attainment between children and adults results not from the Organizer but from the operation of the filter, together with the monitor.
While Stephen Krashen (e.g., 1981, 1985) has been a leadingvoice in the exploration of acquisition/learning,the distinction has much deeper roots. Linguists have been aware foryearsthat native speakers do not learn their languages in the same way asothersubjects. O'Grady et al. (2001, p.10) state:
Language Learning and Teaching: Krashen's Input Hypothesis
'Acquisition' refers to the subconscious process of 'picking up' a language through a focus on meaning rather than form. Learners are consciously unaware, both of this process in action, and the resulting acquired rules. This is a similar, if not identical, process to the way children learn their first language.
The Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis
He misguidedly, it seems, interprets Krashen's 'acquisition' and 'learning' in terms of his own distinction between 'spontaneous' and 'guided' language acquisition:
Order of acquisition - Wikipedia
The acquisition / learning hypothesis has also received attention from Klein (1986) who sees Krashen's crucial distinction in a different light.
Second Language Acquisition Theories as a Framework …
Krashen's (1984) early work in this field draws the distinction between writing competence and writing performance. Competence is the largely sub-conscious, abstract knowledge of what constitutes good prose. Competence is acquired for the most part through reading. Performance, on the other hand, refers to the conscious application of strategies or rules that have been learned and practised. The distinction between competence and performance in writing parallels that between acquisition and learning in second language development.
Ñandutí >>Benefits of Early Learning
As could be expected, clear evidence in support of one view or the other does not as yet exist and we are compelled to fall back on what Gregg believes is 'intuitively obvious' (: 81). He relates his own experience in learning Japanese and strikes some familiar chords. I too, on the basis of my language learning experiences, agree with him that "it certainly does seem intuitively obvious that at least some rules can be acquired through learning (:81)." While intuition does not clearly prove anything, Gregg deftly challenges Krashen to disprove the more widely held proposition that learning can become acquisition.
SLAEncyclopediaF10 - Acquisition vs
Surely this is not what Krashen means at all. Domestication implies an alteration of the condition of subconscious knowledge. While this view is less extreme and more appealing than Krashen's, as it acknowledges some kind of interaction between - the conscious and the subconscious - learning and acquisition, Klein further confuses matters when he concedes that: