The GCs are merely the apex predator in a political-economic jungle filled with predators. If the GCs are , then the jungles are also filled with tyrannosaurs, , and the many docile herbivores that they feast on, and some furtive creatures . Most Americans have no awareness of the issue, but the USA’s federal government has , largely energy-related patents, according to credible sources. The for classifying patented technologies extended to photovoltaics that had efficiencies of greater than 10% or any energy conversion technology that achieved greater than 70-80% efficiency. FE devices are often called “over-unity” because they produce more energy than it takes to run them. Consequently, any over-unity device was subject to being classified. There are many areas like that, where the rationale for suppression is at least plausible, but it is then abused by evil-minded people as they protect the rackets, and the theoretical spirit of the law and the realities of its enforcement are as different as night and day. I saw it , and . Protecting the public is the , which extends to consumer "protection" laws and .
Until the end of the 17th century, people believed that little animals like flies andworms could spontaneously be born from substances in decomposition or from mud. FrancescoRedi, Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur made experiments which proved the idea of thespontaneous generation was wrong. At your home or in your school you can made suchexperiments too.
1 - Take two glass jars with a screw top. Put in each a little piece of cooked apple and aspoon of vinegar. For a night, leave one of these jars opened so it can be visited byvinegar (fruit) flies. Close the other jar with the lid and sterilize it by placing it inboiling water in a pressure cooker for a half an hour. After removing it from the cooker,let it cool, leaving it closed. The morning after, let the possible bugs present into thefirst jar leave and then close it with a fine gauze or a plastic sheet on which you willmake some pinholes to allow oxygen to enter. After a few days, you should see some bugs inthe first jar, and none in the second one. What has happened in the first jar which hasnot happened in the second? Some vinegar flies laid eggs in the first jar and from themsome new flies are born. In the second jar, even if there had been eggs, these are deadbecause of high temperature in the pressure cooker. More eggs were not laid because thejar was kept closed. With experiments like this one, you can realize that living beingscannot born from nothing, but they are born from other organisms like them. Fall is themore suited season to do this experiment because vinegar flies are particularly active.
2 - Anyway you can try to adapt this experiment to organisms present at other times of theyear. For example, if you place some dry grass in a water glass, in few days a deal ofprotists will appear. If instead you will put the same material in a close glass pot andif you boil it, nothing will be born. Only some rare thermoresistant microorganisms,bacteria which resist the high temperature of boiling water.
... Uhm, and still there is something which is not working: if any living being comes fromanother living being, from where has come the first living being from which all others arederived? Can we consider completely falsified the theory of the spontaneous generationwith these experiments? Is it possible to assert that, even if the spontaneous generationis not the usual way with which living creatures are born, at least at one time duringbillions of years it has happened on the Earth or another place in the Universe? It is noaccident that there are scientists who study how life began in the first place.
Internet keywords: spontaneous generation.
Protist: Protist, any member of a ..
When two atoms come close to each other, if the potential energy of their combined state is less than their potential energy when they are separate, the atoms will tend to react. But the reaction only happens when the electron shells come into an alignment so that the reaction happen. It is an issue of alignment and the atoms’ velocity. If the shells do not meet in the proper alignment and velocity, the reaction will not happen and the atoms will bounce away from each other. The faster and more often the atoms collide, the likelier they are to react and reach that lower energy state. Chemical (electron shell) reactions need to reach their to occur, and this is measured in temperature. The activation energy for hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water is about 560 degrees Celsius (560o C). Nuclear reactions work in similar fashion, but for nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core, at 16 million degrees Celsius, at a pressure 340 billion times greater than Earth’s atmosphere at sea level, in 10 billion years at one trillion collisions per second, a proton has a 50% chance of fusing with another proton. Nuclear fusion is thus far rarer than electron bonding, and far less energy is released when atoms bond via electrons. The fusion of a helium nucleus releases that it takes to ionize a hydrogen atom. As , some reactions have a cumulative result of , while others . The first can be seen as an investment of energy, while the second can be seen as consuming it. Organisms and civilizations have always faced the investment/consumption decision.
The protist kingdom includes protozoa and algae
Mass spectrometers measure the mass of atoms and molecules, and have become increasingly refined since they were . Today, samples that can only be seen with microscopes can be tested and measured down to a billionth of a gram. Elements have different numbers of protons and neutrons in the nuclei of their atoms, and each nuclear variation of an element is called an . Unstable isotopes decay into smaller elements (also called “”). Scientific investigations have determined that radioactive decay rates and are primarily governed by the dynamics in a decaying atom. The dates determined by radioactive dating have been correlated to other observed processes and the data has become increasingly robust over the years.
High School Biology (solutions, examples, videos)
As with enzymes, the molecules used in biological processes are often huge and complex, but ATP energy drives all processes and that energy came from either potential chemical energy in Earth’s interior or sunlight, but even chemosynthetic organisms rely on sunlight to provide their energy. The Sun thus powers all life on Earth. The cycles that capture energy (photosynthesis or chemosynthesis) or produce it (fermentation or respiration) generally have many steps in them, and some cycles can run backwards, such as the . Below is a diagram of the citric acid (Krebs) cycle. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)