(1973) Effect of 2,4-D on semiconservative and DNA repair synthesis.

As the chemobiokinetic profiles of urinary 2,4-D output are reported in only a few of the studies, summarized in Table 12, it is not possible to estimate the total 2,4-D intake in all cases.


(1972) Determination of 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid in tomato plants and other commercial crops by microcoulometric gas chromatography.

(Case report: bullous dermatitis after exposure to 2,4-D).

Other possible minor sources of 2,4-D include the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB).

With the exception of the case studies of Apffel (1959a) and Seabury (1963), almost all of the reports deal with mixed exposures to 2,4-D and other chemicals, and therefore it is often unclear to what extent 2,4-D, its alkali or amine salts, or its esters contributed to the effects reported by the authors of the studies.

(1975) [Urinary excretion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.] Rocz.

(contd.)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Organism Flow/ Temp Alkali- Hard- pH Formulationc Parameter Water Reference stata (°C) nityb nessb concentration (mg/litre)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Bluegill sunfish stat 25 19 7.0 dimethylamine 24-h LC50 390 Davis & (Lepomis macrochirus) stat 25 19 7.0 dimethylamine 48-h LC50 375 Hardcastle (1959)Largemouth bass stat 25 19 7.0 dimethylamine 24-h LC50 375 Davis & (Micropterus salmoides) stat 25 19 7.0 dimethylamine 48-h LC50 350 Hardcastle (1959)Punti (Puntius ticto) stat 23.5 ethyl ester 24-h LC50 1.6 Verma et al.

(1968) [Model myotonia after 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D).

Neurotoxic effects of 2,4-D and related compounds Some of the case reports cited below on poisonings with, and occupational overexposures to, herbicides indicate that 2,4-D and other chlorophenoxy compounds may affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid - Wikipedia

General Introduction Many studies of the toxicity of 2,4-D were carried out before the possible toxicological importance of manufacturing by-products, such as 2,6-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,6-D and 2,4,6-T) monochlorophenoxyacetic acid, or N-nitroso compounds, was known or appreciated.

Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4- (2,4-D) (EHC 29, 1984)

Human beings The studies on volunteers and on cases of accidental or voluntary 2,4-D poisoning summarized in Tables 14 and 15 show that human beings excrete 2,4-D mainly in the urine, and that the blood plasma clearance times depend on the dose, individual characteristics, and the presence or absence of compounds that may competitively inhibit 2,4-D excretion.