Using Models to Understand Photosynthesis (revised 11/2017)

[NOTE: Confirgurational entropy measures randomness in the distributionof matter in much the same way that thermal entropy measures randomnessin the distribution of energy].
Thus, the thermodynamic conditions under which water will transform to iceare seen from equation 7-9 to be:
For condition of T 273oK energy is removed from water to produceice, and the aggregate disordering of the surroundings is greater than theordering of the water into ice crystals.

The chemical equation is written below which summarizes the chemical reactions of photosynthesis.

Amount of ferrite content has been evaluated by ferrite-scope & micro structural study has been done on neophot-2 microscope a at cladded region for both weld overlays which show that amount of ferrite in the matrix of austenite decreases with increase welding speed from 160 mm/min to 200 mm/min.

Key words: Austenitic Stainless steel, Electro-slag strip cladding, Welding speed, Micro-structural changes, Ferrite content, Potentio-dynamic study and cyclic polarization study.

Reference
[1] Susan Pak, Solveig Rigdal, Leif Karlsson, Ann-Charlotte Gustavsson, Electroslag and submerged arc stainless steel cladding, Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Vol.


Photosynthesis Investigation (revised 8/2016)

Population Growth – Exponential and Logistic Models vs. Complex Reality (revised 3/2017)

Chickpea plants irrigated with magnetized water grew taller and heavier than plants irrigated with tap water (Hozayn and Qados, 2010). The authors attribute this stimulation to an increase in photosynthetic pigments, where the magnetic water induces cell metabolism and mitosis meristematic cells in pea, lentil and flax (Belyavskaya, 2001). Additionally, it is believed that new protein bands are formed in plants that are treated with magnetic water, and that these proteins are responsible for increased growth (Hozayn and Qados, 2010). MW has been linked to increases in photosynthetic pigments, endogenous promotors, total phenol and protein biosynthesis in plants (Qados and Hozayn, 2010 and Shabrangi and Majd, 2009).


The process of Photosynthesis - Los Angeles Harbor …






The complex process of photosynthesis actually consists of TWO interrelated complex reactions -- the LIGHT and DARK reactions.

The Chemical Equation of Photosynthesis

We will find this concept helpful in Chapter 9 when we analyze condensationreactions for DNA and protein.

Clausius2, who formulated the second law of thermodynamics, summarizesthe laws of thermodynamics in his famous concise statement: "The energyof the universe is constant; the entropy of the universe tends toward amaximum." The universe moves from its less probable current arrangement(low entropy) toward its most probable arrangement in which the energy ofthe universe will be more uniformly distributed.

Photosynthesis can be represented using a chemical equation

This flow of energy from the house to the cold outside in winter, or theflow of energy from the hot outdoors into the air-conditioned home in thesummer, is a process described by the second law of thermodynamics.

The overall balanced equation is..

stomata openings on the surface of a leaf that allow for the exchange of gases between air spaces in the leaf interior and the atmosphere
Transpiration
Transpiration assists the photosynthetic process in two ways.

In addition to transpiration, stomata allow carbon dioxide to diffuse into the air spaces within the leaf ’s
mesophyll layers, where most of the photosynthetic cells are located.